Changing Stories: Ovid’s Metamorphoses on canvas, 0 – index and bibliography

John William Waterhouse (1849–1917), Echo and Narcissus (1903), oil on canvas, 109.2 x 189.2 cm, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, England. Wikimedia Commons.

There are two major literary sources which have inspired more European and North American paintings than any others: the Bible, and Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Although most of us are at least fairly familiar with the major Biblical narratives, and they are freely available in many different translations into almost every language, hardly any of us have read more than a few lines of Ovid.

We are also generally familiar with the gist of the major books of the Bible, progressing from the creation, through Adam and Eve, the Fall, on into the early history of the Jewish people, the records of the life and ministry of Jesus Christ, and early church history in the New Testament. I suspect that hardly anyone reading this page has the remotest idea of the overall structure and sequence of the Metamorphoses.

Yet Ovid’s epic work inspired the writings of Dante, Chaucer, Shakespeare, and the paintings of Titian, Rubens, and innumerable artists since. Its fifteen books are generally considered to relate over 250 different myths, some of which still influence our languages, thought, and art.

In this series of articles, I am systematically looking at each of the myths in Ovid’s Metamorphoses in turn, which contain narrative, a story. I relate that story, based on Ovid’s account, and then show a few of the best examples of that story in paintings.

References

Wikipedia.
Perseus English translation.
AS Kline’s translations and more.
Downloadable PDFs of Loeb Classical Library – L042 and L043 cover the whole of Metamorphoses, in English and Latin.

Heroines: Ovid’s ‘Heroides’, fictional letters from great women – an index and more

Barolsky, Paul (2014) Ovid and the Metamorphoses of Modern Art from Botticelli to Picasso, Yale UP. ISBN 978 0 300 19669 6.
Boyd, Barbara W (ed) (2002) Brill’s Companion to Ovid, Brill. ISBN 978 90 04 22676 0.
Fantham, Elaine (2004) Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Oxford Approaches to Classical Literature, Oxford UP. ISBN 978 0 1951 5410 8.
Hardie, Philip (2002) The Cambridge Companion to Ovid, Cambridge UP. ISBN 978 0 521 77528 1.
Kilinski II, Karl (2013) Greek Myth and Western Art, The Presence of the Past, Cambridge UP. ISBN 978 1 1070 1332 2.
Knox, Peter E (ed) (2009, 2013) A Companion to Ovid, Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978 1 118 45134 2.
Lively, Genevieve (2011) Ovid’s ‘Metamorphoses’, Reader’s Guides, Continuum. ISBN 978 1 4411 0084 9.
Melville, AD (trans) (1986) Ovid, Metamorphoses, Oxford World’s Classics, Oxford UP. ISBN 978 0 1995 3737 2.
Solodow, Joseph B (1988) The World of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978 0 8078 5434 1.
Syme, Sir Ronald (1978) History in Ovid, Oxford UP. ISBN 019 814825 9.
Tarrant, RJ (ed) (2004) P. Ovidi Nasonis, Metamorphoses, Oxford Classical Texts, Oxford UP. (Latin text only.) ISBN 978 0 1981 4666 7.
Woodford, Susan (2003) Images of Myths in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge UP. ISBN 978 0 5217 8809 0.

Anderson, William S (1997) Ovid’s Metamorphoses Books 1-5, Oklahoma UP. ISBN 978 0 8061 2894 8.
Hill, DE (1985) Ovid Metamorphoses Books I-IV, Aries & Phillips. ISBN 978 0 85668 257 5.
Hill, DE (1992) Ovid Metamorphoses Books V-VIII, Aries & Phillips. ISBN 978 0 85568 395 4.
Hill, DE (1999) Ovid Metamorphoses Books IX-XII, Aries & Phillips. ISBN 978 0 85668 646 7.
Hill, DE (2000) Ovid Metamorphoses Books XIII-XV, Aries & Phillips. ISBN 978 0 85668 733 4.

Beard, Mary, North, John, & Price, S (1998) Religions of Rome, vol 1, A History, Cambridge UP. ISBN 978 0 521 31682 8.
Gantz, Timothy (1993) Early Greek Myth, A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, vol 1, Johns Hopkins UP. ISBN 978 0 801 85360 9.
Gantz, Timothy (1993) Early Greek Myth, A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, vol 2, Johns Hopkins UP. ISBN 978 0 801 85362 3.
Morford, MPO, Lenardon, RJ, & Sham, M (2015) Classical Mythology, 10th ed., Oxford UP. ISBN 978 0 19 999739 8.

Parallel hypertext: Storyspace metamorphosed 1
Parallel hypertext: Storyspace metamorphosed 2, including a full Latin and English version of Ovid’s Metamorphoses Book 1 in Tinderbox/Storyspace format

Summaries – the best stories and paintings

The best of the first half – six of the best stories and finest paintings from Daphne to Echo and Narcissus
The best of the first half – five of the best stories and finest paintings from Pyramus and Thisbe to the Calydonian boar hunt

Contents

Book 1
1 – Lycaon, cannibalism, and werewolves
2 – Deucalion, the flood, and Python
3 – Daphne, and how the laurel became the crown
4 – Jupiter & Io, Mercury & Argus, Pan & Syrinx. Rape, murder, cows, and peacocks
Book 2
5 – Phaëthon, the Heliades, Cycnus
6 – Jupiter and Callisto
7 – The Raven and Crow, and more
8 – Turned into stone, Mercury and Aglaurus
9 – The abduction of Europa
Book 3
10 – Cadmus and the Dragon’s Teeth
11 – Actaeon’s fatal mistake
12 – Semele and Jupiter’s Surrogate Pregnancy
13 – Tiresias, Echo and Narcissus
14 – Pentheus and Bacchus
Book 4
15 – Pyramus and Thisbe
16 – Venus and Mars, Leucothoe and Clytie
17 – Salmacis and Hermaphroditus
18 – Athamas and Ino
19 – Cadmus and Harmonia
20 – Perseus and Andromeda
21 – Perseus and Medusa
Book 5
22 – Perseus’ Wedding Feast
23 – Minerva and the Muses
24 – The rape of Proserpine
25 – Arethusa
26 – Triptolemus and Lyncus
Book 6
27 – Arachne and Minerva
28 – Niobe and the slaughter of her children
29 – Lycians turned into frogs
30 – Marsyas and Pelops
31 – Tereus, Philomela and Procne
32 – Boreas and Orithyia
Book 7
33 – Jason, Medea, and the Golden Fleece
34 – Medea rejuvenates Aeson
35 – Medea and Pelias
36 – Medea and Theseus
37 – Aeacus and the Myrmidons
38 – Cephalus and Procris
Book 8
39 – Scylla and Minos, and the Minotaur
40 – Daedalus and Icarus
41 – Meleager, Atalanta, and the Calydonian Boar
42 – The Death of Meleager, and the Feast of Achelous
43 – Philemon and Baucis, virtue rewarded
44 – Shape-shifters and death by gluttony
Book 9
45 – How came the Horn of Plenty
46 – Nessus, Deianira, and Hercules
47 – the birth of Hercules
48 – Dryope, and an incestuous couple
49 – Transgender marriage
Book 10
50 – Orpheus and Eurydice
51 – How the cypress tree is for grief
52 – Hyacinthus killed by a discus
53 – Pygmalion and his statue
54 – The making of myrrh
55 – Hippomenes’ race with Atalanta
56 – The death of Adonis
Book 11
57 – Orpheus battered to death by Bacchantes
58 – The Midas touch and ears
59 – Troy and the birth of Achilles
60 – Daedalion, Ceyx and Halcyone turned into birds
61 – Aesacus and Hesperia
Book 12
62 – The Greeks attack Troy
63 – First casualties at Troy, and gender change
64 – The Lapiths and the Centaurs
65 – Periclymenus and the Death of Achilles
Book 13
66 – The Judgement of Arms
67 – The Fall of Troy
68 – The death of Memnon and flight of Aeneas
69 – Aeneas on Delos
70 – Galatea’s lover crushed by jealousy
71 – Glaucus and Scylla
Book 14
72 – Scylla transformed
73 – Dido and Aeneas, and the origin of the apes
74 – The Shrinking Sibyl
75 – The Wrath of Polyphemus

Index

Achaemenides, Article 75
Achelous, daughters of, Article 24
Achelous, River, Article 28
Achelous, river god, Article 42 Article 43 Article 44 Article 45
Achilles, Article 59 Article 63 Article 65 Article 66 Article 67 Article 68
Acis, Article 70
Acoetes, Article 14
Actaeon, Article 11
Adonis, Article 54 Article 55 Article 56
Aeacus, Article 37
Aeëtes, Article 33
Aegeus, Article 35 Article 36 Article 37
Aegis (Minerva’s breastplate), Article 21
Aeneas, Article 68 Article 69 Article 73 Article 74 Article 75
Aeolus, Article 60
Aesacus, Article 61
Aesculapius, Article 7
Aeson, Article 34
Aethra, Article 36
Agamemnon, Article 62 Article 65 Article 66 Article 69
Aglauros, Article 7 Article 8
Ajax, Article 66
Alcmena, Article 47
Alcyone (Halcyone), Article 60
Alexiroe, Article 61
Alpheus, Article 25
Althea, Article 42
Amphion, Article 28
Ancaeus, Article 41
Anchises, Article 68 Article 69 Article 74
Andraemon, Article 48
Andromeda, Article 20 Article 21 Article 22
Anius, Article 69
Apollo, Article 2 Article 3 Article 5 Article 7 Article 8 Article 16 Article 28 Article 29 Article 30 Article 48 Article 51 Article 52 Article 58 Article 59 Article 60 Article 65 Article 69 Article 74
Arachne, Article 27
Arcas, Article 6
Arethusa, Article 24 Article 25
Argus, Article 4
Ariadne, Article 39
Ascalaphus, Article 24
Ascanius, Article 68 Article 69
Astyanax, Article 67
Atalanta, Article 41 Article 42 Article 55
Athamas, Article 18
Atlas, Article 20
Attis, Article 51
Aurora, Article 38 Article 68
Bacchantes, Article 57
Bacchus, Article 12 Article 13 Article 14 Article 17 Article 34 Article 39 Article 57 Article 58 Article 69
Battus, Article 8
Baucis, Article 43
Beroe, Article 12
Boreas, Article 32
Byblis, Article 48
Cadmus, Article 10 Article 11 Article 19
Caeneus, Article 63 Article 64
Caenis, Article 63 Article 64
Calais, Article 32
Calchas, Article 62
Calliope, Article 24 Article 25 Article 26
Callirhoe, sons of, Article 48
Callisto, Article 6
Calydonian boar, Article 41
catasterisation, Article 6
Caunus, Article 48
Cecrops, daughters of, Article 7
Celmis, Article 17
Cenchreis, Article 54
Centaurs, Article 64
Cephalus, Article 37 Article 38
Cepheus, Article 20 Article 21 Article 22
Cerastae, Article 53
Cercopes, Article 73
Ceres, Article 24 Article 25 Article 26 Article 30 Article 44
Cetus (sea-monster), Article 20
Ceyx, Article 60
Chione, Article 60
Chiron (Centaur), Article 7
Chrysaor, Article 21
Cinyras, Article 54
Circe, Article 72
Clymene, Article 5
Clytie, Article 16
Coroneus, Article 7
Coroni, Article 69
Coronis, Article 7
Creusa, Article 35 Article 68
Crocus, Article 17
crow, Article 7
Cumea, Sibyl of, Article 74
Cupid, Article 3 Article 24 Article 55
Curetes, the, Article 17
Cyane, Article 24
Cybele, Article 55
Cycnus (Cygnus), Article 5 Article 63
Cyllarus, Article 64
Cyparissus, Article 51
Daedalion, Article 60
Daedalus, Article 39 Article 40
Danae, Article 20
Daphne, Article 3
Daphnis, Article 17
Deianira, Article 45 Article 46
Dercetis, Article 15
Deucalion, Article 2
Diana, Article 6 Article 7 Article 11 Article 25 Article 28 Article 29 Article 30 Article 38 Article 41 Article 60 Article 62 Article 69
Dido, Article 73
dragon’s teeth, Article 10
Dryope, Article 48
Echinades, Article 42
Echo, Article 13
Epaphus, Article 5
Erechtheus, Article 32
Ericthonius, Article 7
Eris, Article 59
Erysichthon, Article 44
Europa, Article 9 Article 10
Eurydice, Article 50 Article 57
Eurytus, Article 64
Fates, Article 7 Article 11 Article 24 Article 42
Fleece, Golden, Article 33
Furies, Article 4 Article 18
Galanthis, Article 47
Galatea, Article 53 Article 70
Ganymede, Article 52
Glauce, Article 35
Glaucus, Article 71 Article 72
Gorgons, Article 21
Graiae, Article 21
Gryneus, Article 64
Hades, Article 24 Article 50
Halcyone, Article 60
Harmonia, Article 19
Hebe, Article 48
Hecate, Article 34
Hector, Article 61 Article 63
Hecuba, Article 61 Article 67
Helicon, Article 23
Hercules, Article 45 Article 46 Article 47 Article 48 Article 59 Article 65
Hermaphroditus, Article 17
Hermione (for Harmonia), Article 19
Herse, Article 7 Article 8
Hesione, Article 59
Hesperia, Article 61
Hippodamas, Article 42
Hippodame, Article 64
Hippomenes, Article 55
Hunger, Article 44
Hyacinthia, Article 52
Hyacinthus, Article 52
Hylonome, Article 64
Hymen, Article 50
Ianthe, Article 49
Icarus, Article 40
Ino, Article 18
Io, Article 4
Iolaus, Article 48
Iole, Article 46 Article 47 Article 48
Iphigenia, Article 62
Iphis, Article 49
Iris, Article 60
Isi, Article 49
Itys, Article 31
Ixion, son of, Article 42 Article 43
Jason, Article 33 Article 34 Article 35 Article 41
Juno, Article 4 Article 6 Article 12 Article 13 Article 18 Article 37 Article 47 Article 52
Jupiter, Article 1 Article 2 Article 4 Article 5 Article 6 Article 9 Article 12 Article 13 Article 20 Article 24 Article 37 Article 43 Article 46 Article 52 Article 68 Article 73
Laomedon, Article 59
Lapiths, Article 64
Latona (Leto), Article 28 Article 29 Article 69
Latreus, Article 64
Lichas, Article 46
Ligdus, Article 49
Liriope, Article 13
Learchus, Article 18
Lelex, Article 42 Article 43
Leuconoë (daughter of Minyas), Article 16
Leucothoë (turned into frankincense tree), Article 16
Leucothoë (also Leucothea, goddess, formerly Ino), Article 18
Lucina, Article 47
Lycaon, Article 1 Article 6
Lycians, Article 29
Lyncus, Article 26
Maenads, Article 57
Mars, Article 16
Marsyas, Article 30
Medea, Article 33 Article 34 Article 35 Article 36
Medusa, Article 20 Article 21 Article 22
Meleager, Article 41 Article 42
Melicerta, Article 18
Memnon, Article 68
Menoetes, Article 63
Mercury, Article 4 Article 8 Article 43 Article 60
Mestra (Mnestra), Article 44
Midas, Article 58
Minerva, Article 7 Article 8 Article 10 Article 21 Article 22 Article 23 Article 24 Article 27 Article 30 Article 40
Minos, Article 37 Article 39
Minotaur, Article 39
Minyas, daughters of, Article 15 Article 16 Article 17
Morpheus, Article 60
Muses, Article 23 Article 30
Myrmidons, Article 37
Myrrha, Article 54
Narcissus, Article 13
Naxos, Article 14
Neleus, Article 65
Neptune, Article 21 Article 36 Article 42 Article 44 Article 59 Article 63 Article 65
Nessus, Article 46
Nestor, Article 63 Article 64 Article 65
Nictimene, Article 7
Niobe (and Niobids), Article 28
Nisus, Article 39
Oceanus, Article 71
Ocyroe, Article 7
Odysseus, Article 16 Article 18 Article 72
Oeneus, Article 41
Orithyia, Article 32
Orpheus, Article 14 Article 50 Article 51 Article 52 Article 57
Ortygia, Article 25
Osiris, Article 4 Article 5
Palaemon, Article 18
Pan, Article 4 Article 58
Pandion, Article 31
Pandrosos, Article 7 Article 8
Paphos, Article 53
Paris (Alexander), Article 62 Article 65
Pasiphae, Article 39
peacock, Article 4
Pegasus, Article 21 Article 23
Peleus, Article 59 Article 60
Peliades, Article 35
Pelias, Article 35
Pelops, Article 30
Pentheus, Article 14
Periclymenus, Article 65
Perimele, Article 42
Persephone (Proserpine), Article 50
Perseus, Article 20 Article 21 Article 22
Petraeus, Article 64
Phaëthon, Article 5
Philemon, Article 43
Philomela, Article 31
Phineus, Article 22
Phocus, Article 38 Article 60
Phoebus, Article 5
Pierides, Article 23 Article 26
Pierus, daughters of, Article 23 Article 26
Pirithous, Article 41 Article 64
Pluto, Article 24
Polydectes, Article 22
Polydorus, Article 67
Polymestor, Article 67
Polyphemus, Article 70 Article 75
Polyxena, Article 67
Priam, Article 62 Article 67
Procne, Article 31
Procris, Article 38
Proetus, Article 22
Prometheus, Article 2
Propoetides, Article 53
Proserpine, Article 24 Article 50
Proteus, Article 44 Article 59
Protosilaus, Article 63
Psamathe, Article 60
Pygmalion, Article 53 Article 54
Pyramus, Article 15
Pyrrha, Article 2
Python, Article 2
raven, Article 7
Salmacis, Article 17
Scylla, Article 39 Article 70 Article 71 Article 72
Semele, Article 12
Sibyl of Cumea, Article 74
Sicily, Article 24 Article 70
Silenus, Article 58
Sirens, Article 24 Article 73
Sithon, Article 17
Sleep (personification), Article 60
Smilax, Article 17
sun (Sol, Helios), Article 5 Article 16
Syrinx, Article 4
Tantalus, Article 30
Telamon, Article 37 Article 41 Article 59 Article 60
Telemus, Article 70
Telethusa, Article 49
Tereus, Article 31
Tethys, Article 61 Article 71
Thebes (city), Article 10 Article 14 Article 38
Theseus, Article 36 Article 39 Article 41 Article 42 Article 64
Thestius, sons of, Article 41 Article 42
Thetis, Article 59 Article 60 Article 65
Thisbe, Article 15
Tiresias, Article 13 Article 14
Tisiphone, Article 18
Tlepolemus, Article 65
Tmolus, Article 58
Triptolemus, Article 26
Troy (city), Article 59
Ulysses, Article 66 Article 75
Urania, Article 23
Venus, Article 16 Article 24 Article 53 Article 55 Article 56
Vulcan, Article 16 Article 66
werewolf, Article 1
Zeto, Article 32