Narrative in paintings and photography: a summary and index

Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665), [name of painting withheld: see text] (detail) (c 1630), oil on canvas, 82.2 x 109.2 cm, Dulwich Picture Gallery. Wikimedia Commons. Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665), [name of painting withheld: see text] (detail) (c 1630), oil on canvas, 82.2 x 109.2 cm, Dulwich Picture Gallery. Wikimedia Commons.

The following articles cover the subject of narrative painting, and narratives in paintings, and visual art more generally. I believe that this is the largest and most extensive such collection anywhere, on the Internet or in print, but am always happy to hear of other better sites.

Indexes to well-known stories

A series of indexes to all the well-known stories and narratives covered in articles here.

1 text – covers all 143 stories with links to articles, but no images
2 classics – covers 56 stories from classical Greek and Roman sources, with links to articles and example images for each
3 Biblical – covers 30 stories from Biblical sources (including accounts of the lives of the Saints), with links and images
4 literary – covers 35 stories from post-classical literary sources, including novels, poems, plays, movies, even a song, with links and images
5 history – covers 18 stories from post-classical history, with links to articles and example images for each.
6 Non-European – covers 7 stories of non-European origin, currently Indian

Across media

Telling the story: narrative across media, including spoken, written, movies, graphic novels, paintings, photos, and music
The Story Story – narrative, VR, and computers

Specific topics

Every picture tells a story: narrative paintings, an introduction
The Story in Paintings: So what is a narrative painting?
The Story in Paintings: Poussin’s Rinaldo and Armida
The Story in Paintings: Rinaldo and Armida, murder sublimated
The Story in Paintings: Using Storyspace for analysis
The Story in Paintings: Lucretia, the hardest narrative of all
The Story in Paintings: Delacroix and the last great histories
The Story in Paintings: Turner’s narratives
The Story in Paintings: Off with his head! Veronese, Caravaggio, Artemisia Gentileschi, and Bigot paint Judith and Holofernes (Warning: contains gruesome images)
The Story in Paintings: A Feast of Veronese
The Story in Paintings: Gustave Moreau and the dissolution of history
The Story in Paintings: JW Waterhouse and mediaeval romance
The Story in Paintings: Pre-Raphaelite tableaux
The Story in Paintings: Jean-Léon Gérôme and the spectacular
The Story in Paintings: Impressionist issues, including Corot, Manet, Degas, Renoir, and Cézanne, with surprising conclusions
The Story in Paintings: Moving panoramas for the masses
The Story in Paintings: War and puzzles, with Goya, John Singer Sargent, Picasso, and others
The Story in Paintings: New narratives from Paula Rego, Peter Doig, and Stuart Pearson Wright
The Story in Paintings: Changing fortunes – peripeteia
The Story in Paintings: Enlightened by science, Joseph Wright of Derby
The Story in Paintings: Problem pictures, John Collier and others
The Story in Paintings: Daumier’s gestures
The Story in Paintings: allegory, symbol, and realism – a roundup
Winslow Homer in Cullercoats: 6 The bigger picture
The Story in Paintings: Hogarth’s progress
The Story in Paintings: Hogarth’s marriage and the progress of time
The Story in Paintings: Victorian serials
The Story in Paintings: Thomas Cole’s grand series
Hogarth’s print series: Industry and Idleness 1-6
Hogarth’s print series: Industry and Idleness 7-12
Hogarth’s print series: The Four Stages of Cruelty
The Story in Paintings: Etty’s shockingly naked narratives
The Story in Paintings: Caspar David Friedrich’s Stages of Life
The Story in Paintings: Géricault’s Raft of the Medusa
The Story in Paintings: Gustave Doré’s unknown paintings
The Story in Paintings: Ingres’ Classics
The Story in Paintings: David the Goliath
The Story in Paintings: Horace Vernet
Kirsty Whiten’s Wronger Rites – contemporary stories and rituals about life
The Story in Paintings: Böcklin’s classics and symbols
The Story in Paintings: Belshazzar’s Feast – Rembrandt, Martin, and Washington Allston
The Story in Paintings: John Martin, more than the apocalypse
The Story in Paintings: Walter Crane, between illustration and painting
The Story in Paintings: Évariste Luminais and the Franks
The Story in Paintings: Rembrandt’s conspiracy and Batavians
The Story in Paintings: Feuerbach’s falsies
The Story in Paintings: a glimpse of India
The Story in Paintings: Frederic, Lord Leighton – Victorian eye candy?
The Story in Paintings: The Flood
The Story in Paintings: William Dyce and the cliffs of time
The Story in Paintings: Paul Delaroche’s Horrible Histories
The Story in Paintings: Painting to the music of time
The Story in Paintings: Alessandro Magnasco, a maverick
The Story in Paintings: The thread of fate
The Story in Paintings: Elihu Vedder
The Story in Paintings: Icarus and his downfall
Analysing narrative paintings of Icarus and Daedalus
The Story in Paintings: Nausicaä, boy meets girl and more
The Story in Paintings: Perseus and Edward Burne-Jones 1
The Story in Paintings: Perseus and Edward Burne-Jones 2
The Story in Paintings: Poussin’s Empire of Flora
The Story in Paintings: Frescoes of the Brancacci Chapel
The Story in Paintings: Philemon and Baucis, virtue rewarded
Georges Seurat’s Poseuses: new wine in an old skin?
The Story in Paintings: Lovis Corinth’s Ariadne on Naxos
The Story in Paintings: Ariadne on Naxos, by Titian, Kauffman, Delacroix, and others
The Story in Paintings: Peter Nicolai Arbo, Valkyries and Mermen
The Story in Paintings: ER Hughes’ flights of fantasy
The Story in Paintings: Night Attack on the Sanjō Palace, a Japanese narrative painting
The Story in Paintings: Kalevala, Finland’s Epic 1
The Story in Paintings: Kalevala, Finland’s Epic 2 – Akseli Gallen-Kallela
The Story in Paintings: What the Dickens? – why did no one paint Dickens’ stories?
The Story in Paintings: Ancient Egypt and Italy
The Story in Paintings: Andromeda rescued 1
The Story in Paintings: Andromeda rescued 2
The Story in Paintings: Between Rome and Renaissance, 300-1100 CE
The Story in Paintings: Raising Lazarus, and 1100-1400 CE
The Story in Paintings: genocide and an Etruscan tomb
The Story in Paintings: Why do angels have wings?
The Story in Paintings: Was Velázquez spinning or weaving? – reading Las Hilanderas
The Story in Paintings: Modes of painted narrative
The Story in Paintings: Arthur Hughes and romantic legends
The Story in Paintings: Story circles – narrative form in Bosch’s Passion Scenes
The Story in Paintings: Evelyn De Morgan 1, to 1880
The Story in Paintings: Evelyn De Morgan 2, 1881 on
The Story in Paintings: Georges Rochegrosse, gorgeous girls
The Story in Paintings: Georges Rochegrosse, gruesome death
The Story in Paintings: Manna from heaven
The Story in Paintings: Jean-Paul Laurens and the end of history
The Story in Paintings: The temptation of Saint Anthony, before 1560
The Story in Paintings: The temptation of Saint Anthony, after 1570
The Story in Paintings: The judgement of Solomon
The Story in Paintings: Léon Cogniet and Delacroix’s Abduction of Rebecca
The Story in Paintings: Domenico Morelli – one of the most influential Italian painters of the 1800s, and a fine storyteller
James Tissot’s early narrative paintings
James Tissot’s late narrative paintings: the Bible series, 1
James Tissot’s late narrative paintings: the Bible series, 2
The Story in Paintings: Pierre Guérin, the Prix de Rome, and the Death of Cato
The Story in Paintings: The Road to Damascus and the Conversion of Saint Paul

Narrative in landscape paintings

Narrative in the landscape
Landscape Visions 6 – figures, staffage, and Advent Calendars

Individual paintings and painters

Favourite Paintings 3 – Nicolas Poussin, Landscape with a Calm, 1651
Favourite Paintings 4 – Rembrandt, Bathsheba with King David’s Letter, 1654
Favourite Paintings 18 – Sandro Botticelli, Primavera (Spring), c 1482
Illusions of reality: the paintings of Jean-Léon Gérôme

Primary sources

Aristotle’s Poetics: Halliwell S (1987) The Poetics of Aristotle, Translation and Commentary, University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978 0 8078 4203 4.
Alberti’s On Painting: Sinisgalli R (2011) Leon Battista Alberti On Painting, A New Translation and Critical Edition, Cambridge UP. ISBN 978 1 107 00062 9.
Lessing’s Laocoön: McCormick EA (1962) Laocoön. An Essay on the Limits of Painting and Poetry, translated, with an introduction and notes, by Edward Allen McCormick, Johns Hopkins UP. ISBN 0 8018 3139 3.

Further general reading

Andrews L (1995) Story and Space in Renaissance Art. The Rebirth of Continuous Narrative, Cambridge UP. ISBN 0 521 47356 X.
Bal M (2009) Narratology. Introduction to the Theory of Narrative, 3rd edn, U Toronto Press. ISBN 978 0 8020 9631 9.
Bal M (1991/2006) Reading Rembrandt. Beyond the Word-Image Opposition, Amsterdam UP. ISBN 978 9 0535 6858 3.
Barolsky P (2014) Ovid and the Metamorphoses of Modern Art from Botticelli to Picasso, Yale UP. ISBN 978 0 300 19669 6.
Cohn N (2013) The Visual Language of Comics. Introduction to the Structure and Cognition of Sequential Images, Bloomsbury. ISBN 978 1 4411 8145 9.
Cooke P & Lübbren N eds. (2016) Painting and Narrative in France, from Poussin to Gaugin, Routledge. ISBN 978 1 4724 4010 5.
Herman D, Jahn M, Ryan M-L eds (2005) Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory, Routledge. ISBN 978 0 415 77512 0.
de Jong IJF (2014) Narratology & Classics, A Practical Guide, Oxford UP. ISBN 978 0 19 968870 8.
Langmuir E (2003) Narrative, Pocket Guide, The National Gallery Company. ISBN 978 1 8570 9257 8.
Lister R (1966) Victorian Narrative Paintings, Clarkson N Potter. No ISBN.
Meisel M (1983) Realizations: Narrative, Pictorial, and Theatrical Arts in Nineteenth-Century England, Princeton UP. ISBN 978 0 6916 1293 5.
Roberts HE (ed) (1998, 2014) Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography, Themes Depicted in Works of Art, 2 vols, Routledge. ISBN 978 1 138 89259 0, 978 1 138 89260 6.
Sitwell S (1937) Narrative Pictures. A Survey of English Genre and its Painters, B T Batsford. No ISBN.
Thomas A (1994) Illustrated Dictionary of Narrative Painting, John Murray. ISBN 978 0 7195 5289 2.
Thomas J (2000) Victorian Narrative Painting, Tate Publishing. ISBN 978 1 8543 7318 2.

Iconography

Gupta SP & Asthana SP (2007) Elements of Indian Art, Including Temple Architecture, Iconography & Iconometry, DK Printworld. ISBN 978 81 246 0214 0.
Jansen ER (1993) The Book of Hindu Imagery, Gods, Manifestations and Their Meaning, New Age Books. ISBN 978 81 7822 056 7.

Websites

The Lucas Museum of Narrative Art
Wikipedia
Image & Narrative open online journal
The Moving Panorama of Pilgrim’s Progress
Wikipedia on allegory
Kirsty Whiten’s rites and rituals
The Warburg Institute Iconographic Database

Please see individual articles for topic-specific references.

Summary of major points, with references to the relevant articles:

They are older than written narratives, and have been much more widely accessible. Printing after 1500 made images far more common. Article Article Article
Narrative consists of the expression in some form or forms of a story, which itself is a sequence of events. The sequence of events requires that there are at least two, and more usually at least three (Aristotle’s beginning, middle, and end, which have served us so well). The sequence almost always occurs over time. Events themselves involve some kind of action: a static presence alone, without at least implicit action, cannot be narrative. Article
Telling the deeper story in narrative paintings may be more difficult than when telling them in words. Article
It can be difficult to know whether some paintings are narrative, particularly when there is little or no evidence of the artist’s intent. Article
Painting is a singular (point in time) rather than serial (across time) medium. Article Article
Some paintings (Classical Roman, European up to late Renaissance, more modern European, Indian, East Asian) can contain multiple representations of participants at different points in time in the single image. Article Article Article Article Article Article Article
However, such composite images do not necessarily contain ‘proper’ narrative. Article
It is also possible to combine asynchronous events or episodes in the same painting, without using multiple participants. Article
Composite images containing two or more events or episodes may be more complex to read, but can make it possible to tell the whole story in a single painting. Article Article Article
It is possible, in some cases, to project time and space into a single composite narrative, as on a scroll. Few stories are amenable to this, but when they are the result is eminently readable. Article Article
Composite images, or continuous narrative, rely to a degree on spatial separation. If too condensed, the image can become more confusing. Article
Multi-frame paintings were not uncommon before and during the Renaissance Article
It is possible to arrange a mixture of multi-frame and multiplex narratives in a circular painting, to great effect, although this is very rarely seen. Article
The timeframe is implicit. Article Article
Visual content is explicit, but sound and other sensory data are implicit. Article Article
Narrative paintings do not usually convey speech or text, although some bear inscriptions. Article Article
Generally, paintings use narratives which are already familiar to the viewer. Article Article
As a result, narratives for paintings are more usually drawn from common and well-established canons of stories. Article
Where they use unfamiliar narratives, they require speculation, ‘reading’ the painting, on the part of the viewer. Article Article
When the narrative is not clear, and cannot be traced to an oral or printed version, the painting may become an insoluble mystery. Article
Facial expression is important (Alberti). Article Article Article Article Article Article Article
Facial expression of animals can be used too. Article Article
Body language is important (Alberti). Article Article Article
Formalised languages of gesture in limbs and hands can be used, e.g. in Indian paintings. Article
Facial expression, body language and their resulting theatricality form ‘the fruitful moment’ (Lessing) Article
When the ‘fruitful moment’ is obvious, composition can be the crucial determinant of successful narrative. Article Article
Classical Roman painters used Alberti’s rules long before Alberti, but facial expression was little used before the realism which developed during the early Renaissance. Article Article Article
Caricature can replace facial expression to portray emotion, character, etc. Article
Lighting can be used to develop characters in a narrative, and to heighten drama. Article Article
Simplicity in content and composition puts the narrative across more clearly. Article Article Article Article
Directions of gaze in figures can support complex relationships in a narrative. Article
Visual cues are given by including objects and passages which refer directly to details of the narrative. Article Article
Paintings within the painting can convey cues, clues, and impart satire. Article Article
Picturing the moment of sudden change (reversal) in fortune – peripeteia or péripétie – particularly when associated with discovery, makes for powerful tragic narrative, and incorporates references to the past and future. However not all narratives include peripeteia. Article Article Article Article Article Article
Peripeteia can condense the causes, consequences, and moral implications of the event. Article Article
Usually the most difficult element to depict in peripeteia is changed fortune in the future; this can be addressed in a series. Article Article
Where peripeteia is weak, it may be best to pick a moment which is key to the moral or theme of a story. Article
Adding elements which are not in the original narrative generates speculation, and can confuse the viewer. Article
Spacing figures far apart across the painting can give rise to emotional detachment and coldness. Article
Spacing, neutral facial expressions, and marked body language can produce the effect of a frieze, with absence of emotion. Article
Grand spectacles can make good narrative, but then do not use facial expression or body language. They may lose emotional appeal as a result, whilst gaining in the inspiration of awe and sense of the sublime. Article Article
Narrative content weaked during the 1700s, and largely disappeared with oblique and obscure references in the 1800s. Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article
The last great ‘traditional’ classical narrative painting appeared in 1827. Article
Since the late 1900s, there has been a resurgence in narrative paintings, with many of the best following traditional rules with excellent effect. These modern narratives are often derived from modern sources such as movies; classical myths and religion are seldom sources of narrative any more. Article Article
Narrative painting in Finland was rejuvenated with the publication of the Kalevala, at the time that other European narrative painting was in decline. This was due to the availability of a national mythology and the development of the Finnish nation. Other European cultures have strangely ignored their own cultural mythologies, preferring classical Greek, Roman, and Hebrew ones instead, which became increasingly irrelevant and outmoded at that time, for which suitable replacements could not be found. Article
The Prix de Rome stultified history painting in the 1800s. Article
The Storyspace 3 app (Eastgate) is a good tool for graphical analysis of narrative paintings. Article Article
The best narratives are about people, as we empathise most with human stories. Article
New and radical painting styles and techniques are no barrier to painting narratives. Article
Paintings (and photographs) are suited to the inclusion of multiple unrelated narratives, which can be both appealing and fascinating. These are only likely to confuse if used in serial media such as text or speech. Article
It is hard to include both dramatic human action and calm beauty; generally emphasis falls on beauty, and action is lacking, weakening the narrative. Article
It is possible to condense time from two or more moments into a single image. Article
Visual artifices can be used to make clear auditory and other invisible parts of an event. Article
Careful recasting of an event can strengthen the narrative. Article Article
Some painter-poets (e.g. Rossetti) have written poems first, and then painted their narrative. Article
Thoughts and yearnings can be made explicit in a form of ‘thought bubbles’, as used in graphic novels, etc. Article
Pre-Raphaelite narrative painting is often notable for its lack of ‘action’, showing static tableaux instead. Article Article Article
Good narrative paintings can also refer to other narratives or establish additional points. Article
Strong narrative is possible without facial expression or body language, if composition and cues are good enough. Article
Narrative self-portraits are possible. Article
Not all paintings which refer to narratives, such as myths, are themselves narrative. Article Article
The title of a painting may not be that given to it by the artist, and can mislead its reading. Article
Artists who have undergone a ‘classical’ training should be best-equipped to portrary narrative. However, sometimes they do not deliver clear narratives, and those who were largely self-taught can sometimes be better at conveying narrative. Article Article
By and large, Impressionism ignored the narrative genres altogether. Article
Symbolist paintings may contain proper narrative. Article
Illustrations are intended by the artist to accompany the text narrative; narrative paintings are intended by the artist to stand alone, possibly with the support of the title and short excerpt of text. Article
Panoramas later included narrative paintings. Dioramas were easier to show, requiring smaller spaces, and moving panoramas were compact and very popular. Article
Paintings have far fewer tools for showing time than language. However, there are tools for fixing the moment in time quite precisely, for referring to prior and subsequent events in a narrative, and for discussing time itself. Article
Time as a concept can be expressed allegorically using the figure of Father Time, or by reference to fibrecraft such as knitting, spinning, or weaving as the ‘thread of time’. Article
Fate can be expressed allegorically using the three Fates, or by reference to the ‘thread of fate’, which can be represented by spinning, and possibly weaving. Article
Moving panoramas were in effect long series of conjoined paintings, normally shown with an accompanying oral narrative, and live piano music. Article
‘Flashbacks’ and other asynchronous events can be shown as dreams, in the sky. Article
Asynchronous events can also be shown across different groups of actors (loss of temporal unity), with spatial unity. Article
Painting a view remote from humans, and from an aerial point of view, will make the narrative detached from people, and ‘colder’. Article
Symbolic narrative which remains unresolved can tell a different personal story to each viewer, but still drive a consensus of reaction and opinion. Article
Narrative can also extend to cover changing ideas and values. Article
‘Problem pictures’, with obvious narrativity but encouraging speculation as to the exact narrative, can be used to ignite debate about social and other issues. Article
The detailed reading of a painting may not match the known narrative of a well-known story, in which case it questions that story. Article
Some narratives can be expressed very gesturally and do not need fine realistic detail. Article
Paintings showing narrative in other media, such as the theatre, can share satisfaction of Alberti’s ‘rules’ between stage action and audience reaction. Article
The question as to how to paint narratives divides into what rhetorical tropes to use (if any), and how realist the painting has to be. Choice of styles (realist, painterly, gestural) now depends on what is best suited to the narrative. Article
Realism is not necessary for effective narrative: many strong and clear narratives were painted before the Renaissance. Article
A substantial series of paintings on a particular theme, or of a particular subject, can assemble to create a bigger narrative than exists within individual paintings Article Article
Temporal sequence alone cannot make a narrative. Article
Timeless myths and fables are narratives which may seem less immediately relevant and effective, but last better over time; contemporary stories with satirical and more ephemeral references – like memes – are usually seen as less hackneyed and more relevant, but quickly become obscure. The latter is particularly true when the underlying story is not familiar. Article Article
In a narrative series, although there still needs to be some separation in time between at least two of the paintings, it is possible for two or more to occur more or less simultaneously. Article
However, narrative series can show different views and different content, provided that cues are given to help the viewer align the events in the narrative. Article
Sophisticated and elaborate cues, clues, and symbols are hard to transfer from paintings to prints, for widespread access, and they can make images more complex to read. Article
Artists need some imagery to form a starting point for their visualisation of narrative. When the sole source is text, that narrative is unlikely to be used in paintings. Article
Conspicuously incongruous elements in a painting invite a deeper reading, and the possibility of (different) narrative. Article
Real-looking depictions of historical events can be quite inaccurate accounts of them, if the artist makes decisions on the basis of artistic effect rather than accuracy Article – or if the painting is propaganda. Article
The tendency is for complex pictorial narratives to be read in the same direction as the local language is written: in languages with left-to-right writing, earlier events tend to be on the left; with right-to-left writing, earlier events are on the right. Article
Popular novellists are seldom used to provide stories, probably because they were popular and not deemed appropriate source material for ‘fine art’. This is despite earlier popular appeal of narrative paintings, e.g. religious and other stories in places of worship. Article
Great paintings by Masters such as Bosch can leave lasting influence, although that may be regional. Article

Classification and Terminology of modes of painted and visual narrative:

The Story in Paintings: Modes of painted narrative for full details.

  • narrative, in which a story is depicted, almost invariably containing reference to, or depictions of, more than one instant in the story;
  • instantaneous, in which the image is intended to show what was happening at a single moment in time, even though it is likely to contain references to other moments in time;
  • multi-image, in which a series of separate images (e.g. paintings) is used to tell the story;
  • multiplex, in which a single image contains representations of two or more moments in time from a story;
  • multi-frame, in which two or more picture frames are used to tell a story, most commonly in comics or manga;
  • polymythic, which is a single image containing two or more stories.

Index of artists covered (230):

Unknown Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article
van Aelst, Pieter Coecke Article
Allston, Washington Article
Anker, Albert Article
Appiani, Andrea (circle of) Article
Arbo, Peter Nicolai Article
Assereto, Gioacchino Article
Bacchaccia, Francesco Article
Barra, Didier Article
Bastien-Lepage, Jules Article
Batoni, Pompeo Girolamo Article
Bazzi, Giovanni Antonio, Il Sodoma Article
Beg, Farrukh Article
Beham, Hans Sebald Article
Bellini, Giovanni Article
Berlinghieri, Bonaventura Article
Bigot, Trophime Article
Blake, William Article Article
Blondel, Merry-Joseph Article
Böcklin, Arnold Article Article
Bosch, Hieronymus Article Article Article
Botticelli, Sandro Article
Bouchet, Louis-André-Gabriel Article
Bouillon, Pierre Article
de Boulogne, Valentin Article
de Brailes, William Article
Brock, Charles Edmund Article
Brown, Ford Madox Article
Bronzino, Angelo Article
Bruegel the Elder, Jan Article
Bruegel the Elder, Pieter Article Article Article
Bukovac, Vlaho (Biagio Faggioni) Article
Burne-Jones, Edward Article Article Article Article
Cabello, Francisco Gutiérrez Article
Cades, Giuseppe Article
Caravaggio Article Article
Carracci, Annibale Article
Cartellier, Jérôme Article
Cesari, Giuseppe Article
Cézanne, Paul Article Article Article Article
Claeissens, Antoon Article
Clarke, Joseph Clayton ‘Kyd’ Article
de Cock, Jan Wellens Article
Cogniet, Léon Article
Cole, Thomas Article Article
Collier, John Article Article
Comerre, Léon Article
Conca, Sebastiano Article
Conder, Charles Article
Corinth, Lovis Article Article Article Article Article
Corot, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Article
Cosimo, Piero di Article
Courbet, Gustave Article
van Craesbeeck, Joos Article
Cranach the Elder, Lucas Article Article Article
Cranach the Younger, Lucas Article
Crane, Walter Article Article Article
Cruikshank, George Article
Daumier, Honoré Article Article
David, Jacques-Louis Article
Degas, Edgar Article
Delacroix, Eugène Article Article Article Article
Delaroche, Paul Article Article
Delug, Alois Article
Denis, Maurice Article
Desubleo, Michele Article
Detaille, Édouard Article Article
Doig, Peter Article
Doré, Gustave Article
Draper, Herbert James Article
Duccio di Buoninsegna Article Article
Dyce, William Article Article Article
van Dyck, Anthony Article Article
Egg, Augustus William Article
Ekman, Robert Wilhelm Article
Elsheimer, Adam Article Article Article Article
Etty, William Article Article Article Article
Faggioni, Biagio (Vlaho Bukovac) Article
Fantin-Latour, Henri Article
Ferrari, Gaudenzio Article
Feszty, Árpád Article
Feuerbach, Anselm Article
Fildes, Sir Luke Article
de la Fosse, Charles-Alexandre Coëssin Article
Fragonard, Jean-Honoré Article
Francken the Younger, Frans Article
di Fredi, Bartolo Article
Friedrich, Caspar David Article
Frith, William Powell Article Article
Gallen-Kallela, Akseli (Axél Waldemar Gallén) Article
Gentileschi, Artemisia Article Article
Géricault, Théodore Article
Gérôme, Jean-Léon Article Article Article
Giordano, Luca Article
Giorgione Article
Giotto di Bondone Article
di Giovanni, Stefano Article
Godenhjelm, Berndt Abraham Article
Gowy, Jacob Peter Article
Goya, Francisco Article
Grünewald, Matthias Article
Guérin, Pierre-Narcisse Article
Hoet the Elder, Gerard Article
Hofheinz-Döring, Margret Article
Hogarth, William Article Article Article Article Article Article
Holzer, Adi Article
Homer, Winslow Article
Hughes, Arthur Article
Hughes, Edward Robert Article
Hunt, William Holman Article Article Article
Huys, Pieter Article
Ingobertus Article
Ingres, JAD Article Article
Jordaens, Jacob Article
Kandinsky, Wassily Article
Kauffman, Angelica Article Article
Keinänen, Sigfrid August Article
Kneller, Godfrey Article
Kordenbusch, Georg Article
Landon, Charles Paul Article
Lange, Dorothea (photo) Article
Lastman, Pieter Article
Laurens, Jean-Paul Article Article
Lea, III, Tom Article
Leighton, Frederic, Lord Article Article Article Article Article Article Article
van Leyden, Lucas Article
Lippi, Lorenzo (Workshop of) Article
Loth, Johann Carl Article
Lotto, Lorenzo Article
Luini, Bernardo Article
Luminais, Évariste Vital Article
Lund, Johan Ludwig Article
Magnasco, Alessandro Article
Malczewski, Jacek Article
Manet, Édouard Article
Manuel, Niklaus Article
Martin, John Article Article Article
Martineau, Robert Braithwaite Article
Masaccio (Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone Cassai) Article
Massijs, Cornelis Article
Master of the Osservanza Article
Memling, Hans Article
Memmi, Lippo Article
Mengs, Anton Raphael Article
Merwart, Paul Article
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni Article Article Article
van Mieris, Willem Article
Mignard, Pierre Article
Millais, John Everett Article Article
Molinari, Antonio Article
de Momper (II), Joos Article
Monet, Claude Article
Moreau, Gustave Article Article Article Article Article Article
Morelli, Domenico Article Article Article
Morland, George Article
De Morgan, Evelyn Article Article
Mowbray, Henry Siddons Article
Muller, Édouard Article
Muukka, Elias Article
Nash, Paul Article
Nevinson, C R W Article
Northcote, James Article
Orchardson, William Quiller Article
Palmer, Samuel Article Article
di Paolo, Giovanni Article
Parmigianino (Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola) Article
Paxton, William McGregor Article
Pellegrini, Giovanni Batista Article
Philippoteaux, Paul Dominique Article
Picasso, Pablo Article Article
Poussin, Nicolas Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article
Preller the Elder, Friedrich Article
Purrington, Caleb Article
al-Qazwini, Zakariya Article
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino) Article
Rego, Paula Article Article
Rembrandt Article Article Article Article
Reni, Guido Article Article Article
Renoir, Pierre-Auguste Article Article
de Ribera, José Article
Ricci, Sebastiano Article
Rijckaert (III), David Article
Rochegrosse, Georges Article
Rops, Félicien Article
Rosa, Salvator Article
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel Article
Rozhnov, Fedor Nikitin Article
Rubens, Peter Paul Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article
Russell, Benjamin Article
Sacchi, Andrea Article
Sandrart, Joachim von Article
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