With the defeat of Carthage at the end of the second Punic War in 201 BCE, Rome was the dominant military force in the western Mediterranean. Although its neighbour to the east, Greece, had long been in steady decline, the Romans still admired its great achievements, and the Greeks saw Rome as a valuable ally. Unfortunately, the Macedonians were more predatory, and in prolonged campaigns tried to conquer Greece. The Romans had to respond.
Titus Quintius Flaminius (Quinctius, or Quincticus) had seen first action under the consul Marcellus against Hannibal, in the second Punic War. Marcellus died in an ambush, and Titus was made governor of Tarentum, which established his reputation. He was elected consul before he was thirty, and was sent to lead the Roman forces against King Philip of Macedon.
Unlike his predecessors, Titus intended a short and effective campaign. When he came upon the Macedonians, he ambushed them in a pass, and discovered that Philip was driving the inhabitants of Thessaly into the mountains, burning and looting their cities. Titus responded by telling his men to respect the locals, and win them over to the Romans, which proved very effective.
Titus attempted to negotiate with Philip, but the latter would not withdraw his garrisons from Greek cities. The Romans then won over the support of much of the rest of Greece, but Philip remained obdurate, even sending ambassadors direct to Rome to try to negotiate a better deal. Titus was supported by the senate, who agreed that he should continue his campaign against the Macedonians. Their large armies, of over 26,000 each, engaged near Scotussa.
The Romans got the upper hand in the battle, killing eight thousand Macedonians and taking five thousand prisoners, but Philip himself managed to escape. Eventually, Titus achieved peace by returning the kingdom of Macedon to Philip, but requiring him to keep away from Greece. The senate provided Titus with ten commissioners, who were to supervise the freedom of Greece, with three Roman garrisons.
At the Isthmian games, Titus was formally proclaimed proconsular general, and Greece made free within Roman supervision. This slowly brought a huge roar of approval from the spectators.
Jean Pierre Saint-Ours’ Titus Quincticus Flaminius Granting Liberty to Greece at the Isthmian Games from 1780 is a fine drawing of this event, which sadly doesn’t seem to have survived in any finished painting.
John Leech also turned it into the parody of Flaminius Restoring Liberty to Greece at the Isthmian Games in about 1850, as one of his illustrations in The Comic History of Rome.
The most wonderful painting of this major event is Giuseppe Sciuti’s Titus Quinctius Offers Liberty to the Greeks from 1879. Sciuti was never a pupil of Gérôme, but seems to have had a similar liking for realist depictions of grand events in classical Greece and Rome. If this is anything to go by, we should perhaps unforget his work quickly.
Later, Antiochus entered Greece, and stirred its people to revolt against the Romans. Titus was made lieutenant to Manius Acillius, who was sent as consular general to tackle this. As the Greeks had great affection for Titus, this brought strong support for the Roman cause, and Antiochus was defeated at Thermopylae, already an evocative battlefield for the Greeks.
Titus was then appointed censor, as the culmination of his career. At the time, Scipio Africanus and Marcus Cato were the most influential people in Rome, and opposed to one another. Titus appointed Scipio to be Dean of the Senate, but couldn’t make good relations with Cato. Titus fell into disfavour because of his treatment of Hannibal, who took his own life following his defeat and fall from power. Titus retired from public office, and died later, in peace.
The third and final Punic War was brief, running from 149 to 146 BCE, and consisted of a sustained siege of the city of Carthage. It concluded with the massacre of the surviving Carthaginians and total destruction of their once fine city in an act of genocide comparable to the destruction of Troy. The Romans then built their own city on its ruins, as their empire grew and prospered in Spain and in the Eastern Mediterranean too.
The Romans once again came under threat from the north, this time from the Germanic tribes of Cimbri and Teutones, who moved into northern Italy. Caius (or Gaius) Marius had served in Spain, where his hard work and simple life won him popular support, before going to Africa as legate, where his fame grew considerably, but he made an enemy in Metellus. Marius returned to Rome, where he was elected consul. In that high post he proved unpopular because of his bold and arrogant speeches against the patricians, and he became enemies with Sulla, as both men wanting the glory for the successful outcome of their campaign in Africa.
Tiepolo’s painting of The Triumph of Marius from 1729 shows the general celebrating his triumph in a chariot drawn not by four but three horses, with the defeated and captured barbarian leader Jugurtha in front wearing chains.
Marius was thorough in preparing his army, and then had a stroke of luck when the Cimbri made for Spain first. The war was delayed further, and during this period Marius was repeatedly elected consul, ready for war. When the Cimbri started to approach northern Italy, Marius crossed the Alps and his huge army set up camp alongside the River Rhone.
Eventually, the Teutones, Cimbri, and other supporting tribes arrived and challenged Marius to battle. He wouldn’t rush into that, but kept his troops in their heavily fortified camp. After time, the Teutones made their way past the Romans, intending to cross the Alps. Marius broke camp and followed them until they were close to the Alps, at Aquae Sextiae.
The Romans’ first real contact with their enemy occurred there, unintentionally, when both sides were trying to get water from a river. The Romans slaughtered the Ambrones, whose blood made the river run red. Following that, the barbarians marshalled their forces and prepared to fight. Marius took that opportunity to put three thousand men out to attack the enemy’s rear.
Marius and his army quickly defeated the barbarians, but news then reached him that his colleague Catulus had not fared so well against the Cimbri, who had now moved on and were ravaging the countryside. Marius was summoned back to Rome, where he refused to celebrate a triumph while the war was still taking place.
At this time, Marius modified the design of the Roman javelin, using a wooden pin to secure its shaft. This altered its performance when it struck an enemy shield, and was a significant improvement.
The king of the Cimbri challenged Marius to set a day and a place for their armies to meet, and Marius broke with Roman tradition by telling them that they would do so in three days on the plain of Vercellae, which would allow the Roman cavalry to operate effectively. Marius and Catulus took their armies there, and battle commenced.
The day was hot and sunny, which sapped the strength of the Cimbri; the Romans were better accustomed to the conditions, and well-trained by Marius. The Romans overran the Cimbri in a great victory, which was attributed to Marius, but he insisted on celebrating his triumph together with Catulus.
Tiepolo’s The Battle of Vercellae (1725-29) shows a scene from the battle, in which the Roman cavalry are fighting with deadly effect.
Francesco Saverio Altamura’s Marius Victor over the Cimbri (1863) is a preparatory sketch for a finished painting which is now in the Museo Capodimonte in Naples, a commission by King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy. It shows Marius raised on the shoulders of his men, being paraded through the battlefield, as the spoils of war are being gathered.
Marius was determined to enjoy a sixth period as consul, but made himself hated when he allied himself with Saturninus in murdering rivals and being deceptive. He then spent some time in Cappadocia and Galatia, where he tried to stir up the kings of Asia, in the hope that he would be recalled to Rome to lead its army against them. For Marius recognised that he was at his best leading an army, and at his worst when trying to engage in domestic politics.
When war came, against Italian peoples, Marius was hesitant and slow to attack, perhaps because he was growing old. He was made pro-consul in command of Roman forces who next had to tackle the threat from Mithridates. This brought Marius and Sulla into direct conflict, with Sulla leading an army of 45,000 against Marius and Rome. When Sulla entered the city with those troops, Marius fled.
He was pursued by land and on water, and several times abandoned by those he had to rely on for his escape. He found his way into the house of a woman, Fannia, whom he had tried when he was consul. Surprisingly, she held no resentment towards him despite the fine that he had imposed on her in the past.
Marius finally found a ship to take him on to Carthage, where the Roman governor forbade him to set foot, or he would treat him as an enemy of Rome. He told the governor’s envoy to pass on the message that he had seen Caius Marius a fugitive, seated amid the ruins of Carthage, in a scene which has been depicted in many paintings.
Pierre-Joseph François’ painting of Marius Sitting in the Ruins of Carthage from 1791-94 shows him looking surprisingly young and resolute for a man of over seventy who had been fleeing from certain death.
Pierre-Nolasque Bergeret perhaps captures the overgrown remains better, in his Marius Meditating on the Ruins of Carthage of 1807.
John Vanderlyn’s Caius Marius Amid the Ruins of Carthage, also from 1807, has the general stare into the distance, with his right hand grasping the handle of his sword.
William Rainey prefers a rather obese, grey and balding figure for his illustration of Gaius Marius Sitting in Exile among the Ruins of Carthage, in around 1900.
The situation in Rome had deteriorated into its First Civil War, with Sulla away waging war against Mithridates, and Octavius and Cinna fighting one another over the consulship. Marius put together a force of a thousand Moorish horsemen, and sailed for Italy. There, he offered to join forces with Cinna, who made him pro-consul. He seized the port of Ostia, and set out for Rome.
The senate invited Cinna and Marius to enter the city, following which there was widespread bloodshed as they stamped their authority and murdered many of their enemies. Marius even went for Catulus, his former colleague against the Cimbri on the plain of Vercellae, driving the former general to suicide.
News reached Rome that Sulla had finally defeated Mithridates, and was returning to Rome with a large force. Marius was too old and weary to face another foe: he took to drink in his final days, and died seventeen days after he had been made consul for a record seventh time, in 86 BCE. The city of Rome rejoiced in the hope that his tyranny and bloodshed were over at last. As it turned out, they were only going to get worse.