After Hieronymus Bosch, the artist who has developed the theme of devils more than any other was the visionary William Blake, who was influenced by Henry Fuseli.
Blake’s Satan Exulting over Eve from about 1795 has its roots in the story of the Fall of Man in Genesis, and in Milton’s Paradise Lost, in which Eve has a dream of Satan giving her the fateful apple, sweeping her up into the cloud before she sinks down and falls asleep.
Blake is unusual for separating Satan, a fallen angel flying low over Eve, from the serpent which has already coiled itself around Eve’s legs and body.
A similar fallen angel appears in Blake’s Good and Evil Angels from 1795–1805. Here Satan is shackled at the left ankle, although that shackle doesn’t appear to be attached to anything. Like Fuseli, Blake believed in Lavater’s ideas of physiognomy, and constructs the two angels in accordance with its principles.
Blake’s images inspired by the book of Revelation present some of his most extraordinary visions of devils, although you need to be very careful over who is who. The Great Red Dragon and the Woman Clothed with the Sun from about 1803 shows the start of Revelation chapter 12, which refers to “a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads.” This unique chimeral beast with body parts drawn from human, dragon, and caprine sources may thus be a devil, but isn’t Satan.
Satan appears again in Blake’s The Angel Michael Binding Satan from about 1805, which refers to the start of Revelation chapter 20: “And I saw an angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold on the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, and cast him into the bottomless pit”.
This is the same scene which had been painted earlier by Bonifazio Veronese and Tintoretto, and Blake opts for a fusion of serpent, dragon, and fallen angel.
Blake’s fallen angel reappears in his late glue tempera painting of Satan Smiting Job with Sore Boils from about 1826, a development from an image which he had engraved for his illustrations to the Book of Job the previous year.
In 1854, Ary Scheffer followed a similar model in his Temptation of Christ, where the fallen angel is trying to get Christ to jump from a pinnacle so that he could rely on angels to break his fall.
Among the narrative works which Paul Cézanne painted early in his career is this account of The Temptation of Saint Anthony from about 1875. It shows the devil in stereotypical form, wearing red robes and with an animal head and horns, behind the figure of Saint Anthony.
John Roddam Spencer Stanhope’s Pre-Raphaelite Temptation of Eve from about 1877 appears to have been influenced by Bosch’s serpent from Tha Haywain, with its human head on a serpent’s coils.
This period also saw satirical and thoroughly irreverent depictions of The Temptation of Saint Anthony such as that painted by Félicien Rops in 1878. Behind its cross the horned devil wears scarlet robes and pulls faces, and is accompanied by two daemonic putti.
In 1885, Gustave Moreau fused Bosch’s human-headed serpent with the wings of a fallen angel for the devil in his painting of Eve.
Eve and the serpent grew into something of an obsession with the femme fatale for Franz von Stuck. Here is his Sin from about 1893, in which the serpent’s body passes between Eve’s legs and its head rests on her shoulder, the tongue flickering out in menace.
This last painting of the devil brings this pair of articles back to its starting point, with Goethe’s Faust. One of many depictions of its two principal characters, Mephistopheles conforms to traditional physiognomic rules and looks very human and every bit a devil. He’s the antithesis of the devils of the Renaissance, and far more dangerous.