In Spain, Sorolla was first Naturalist, then his style loosened to resemble that of Sargent; Zorn in Sweden painted early detailed watercolours before loosening up in oils.
Paintings of iron and steel production, printing, lead mining, machining a cog wheel, spinning, and developing a photograph.
Claude Bernard, whose 1865 book on experimental physiology was popular with Zola and many artists, two scientists who drew the structure of the brain and more.
Initiated by Whistler from 1860, it became popular with artists returning from training in Paris in the 1880s, then Sargent, Sickert, and teachers Tonks and Clausen.
When he returned from training at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1886, he painted en plein air in an Impressionist style.
Submitted for the final round of the Prix de Rome in 1875, the jury rejected it on a trumped-up technicality. The effect was to change the history of painting.
In the early 1880s, several young British artists returned from training Paris, and in 1886 formed a new club as an alternative to the Royal Society.
From 1880, Naturalism showed rural deprivation, but active farmyards with plenty of livestock. Then in the 20th century came the tractor.
Highly original visual stories, of the Soldier of Marathon, Saint Francis of Assisi and the Wolf of Agubbio, plus illustrations for ‘Notre Dame de Paris’.
Zorn’s finest art seen through his paintings of ordinary people, particularly those of his home town Mora in Sweden.