Turner’s innovation was driven by his desire to explore colour contrasts and texture. But it led him to lapses in technique which have damaged his paintings.
It wasn’t until later in his career that he discovered his formula for success: putting farm animals into his landscapes.
His visit to Italy resulted in some of the finest paintings of Venice, several completed shortly before his untimely death.
Although he did not even make his 26th birthday, Bonington was very successful, and a great influence on Delacroix and others since.
It is hard to be sure when oil painting outdoors first started, but the oldest such paintings date from before 1700.
His old oaks were saplings during the Middle Ages, and he was a great influence on Gainsborough, Constable, and others.
He intended to be a landscape painter, and was co-founder of the British school of landscape painting. A major influence of Constable and others.
Looser and more painterly styles from Guardi around 1775 to Delacroix in 1862: paving the way for the Impressionists.
A chronological index to articles in this series, with example paintings.
Constable may seem an unlikely revolutionary, but his landscapes and their trees inspired the Barbizon School and Impressionists.