In the absence of any clearly articulated theoretical statements from the core French Impressionists, there are no obvious rules or clear criteria handed down.
After japonisme, it was appropriate that Japanese painters should be trained in Paris and take the latest avant garde European styles and techniques back.
Sorolla’s paintings of the seaside are distinctive and some of the greatest essays on light ever completed. He is not just a painter’s painter, but deserves recognition as a true modern Master.
His richly colourful paintings of women are reminiscent of Renoir at his best, and some of his later studies of nudes appear to owe much to the influence of Degas.
Of the more prolific and influential members of the Macchiaioli, Fattori was the only one to adhere to the group’s principles throughout his career, at cost to his income and recognition.
Apart from his early years as a somewhat atypical member of the Macchiaioli, Boldini remained on the periphery of those other movements and kept his distinctive style as the Master of Swish.
There are several uncanny parallels with the Impressionists, including the importance of the tache and plein air painting, early critical hostility followed later by acceptance, and of course the tragic deaths of Sernesi and Bazille in war.