The more of less regular repetition of form to generate rhythms has long been used in figurative painting, but in the 19th century became prominent in landscapes.
From conventional composition in the early days of Impressionism, landscapes have been reduced, eventually ending up as areas of colour and texture.
A selection of masterpieces which were rejected by the person(s) who commissioned them, or from major exhibitions. Illustrated contents with links.
Horizon, planes of foreground, middle distance and background, repoussoir and framing, rhythm, reflections and panoramas – examples of compositional techniques.
Three times Hodler was the centre of controversy: ‘The Night’ was rejected then removed from display; two large and wonderful murals were also savaged by the critics and the emperor.
From Church’s view of Niagara, Bierstadt in the Sierra Nevada, to two early landscape views of Ferdinand Hodler.
A new series in which painters pit their work against juries of Salons and exhibitions, who then reject paintings which history judges quite differently.
Trained with Gérôme in Paris, he painted fine rural landscapes of Alpine meadows, religious works, and used advanced optical effects.
Courbet’s late coastal views and waves, Cézanne’s Post-Impressionism and radical watercolours, Hodler’s sublime view over Lake Geneva, and Signac’s mixed media.
From Monet’s rhythmic arrays of poplar trees on the banks of the River Epte to Holder’s arrays of figures, more examples of this technique.