Technically very challenging, most are painted in the studio, but some are quite unreal, and others suffer from the moon illusion.
He travelled further afield in the 1880s, focussing on his nocturnes and paintings of twilight, which retain their fine detail.
A painter of nocturnes greater than Whistler, he developed a great love for night scenes, and was commercially successful.
Street scenes, wet roads, at night, café interiors, and busy railway stations in the dark – some of his best paintings.
JMW Turner and John Martin painted apocalyptic visions, but others like JC Dahl and O Achenbach opted for the less spectacular.
Land, sea, air, and the spectacular sight of a volcano erupting. With paintings by Marlow, Joseph Wright of Derby, and Lusieri.
More superb coastal nocturnes by Aivazovsky, Atkinson Grimshaw, Winslow Homer, Edvard Munch, and others.
Although often the preserve of specialists who concentrated on nocturnes, coasts are ideal locations for moonlit views. Caspar David Friedrich, JC Dahl, and more.
Aerial perspective includes reduction in contrast, reduction in chroma, and colour shift towards ‘cooler’ i.e. more blue, colours. But it can be more complex.
This serene and startingly colourful nocturne took painting from the heights of Impressionism towards several radical movements of the twentieth century.