Following the Paris Commune of 1871, history painters resorted to indirect reference in paintings of obscure episodes in mediaeval history.
Classical expectations are reinforced in the Bible, but clearly fade by New Testament times, when Jesus uses attitudes towards Samaritans in his teaching. By the 19th century, hospitality has been lost.
The bohemian quarter of Paris, painted by van Gogh, Toulouse-Lautrec (who lived there for 20 years), Renoir, Pierre Bonnard, and others.
The Sack of Troy, Turner, Vesuvius erupting, an unusual Manet maritime, Vallotton, Paul Nash, Monet, Luce, Signac, Stella and more going up in smoke.
From Naturalist paintings of Bastille Day in 1880 to rush hour in New York City, and crowds outside the Gare de l’Est in 1917.
Views from a balcony, notably developed by Gustave Caillebotte in 1880, but continued in paintings by Lovis Corinth, and Pierre Bonnard.
Less often painted than the rural poor, Naturalism did show the growing pains of the 19th century cities. Paintings from Lhermitte, Luce, Bellows, and more.
After the huge death toll of the war, including 2 major painters, a week in Paris in May resulted in a further 7,000 deaths, and the destruction of public buildings. Hardly a painter in France wasn’t affected.
From 1880, artists concentrated on social aspects of work. They questioned whether young children should be at work, and the role of the worker in society.
From John Singer Sargent to Charles Demuth, war artists showing the horrors of the Great War to the wild waters and hills of central Canada.