Lead White was the primary white pigment used in oil painting until the late twentieth century, and Chalk White was mainly used in the grounds under oil paint layers.
From providing basic hospitality to those who couldn’t be nursed by their families, hospitals started to change during the Age of Enlightenment. But for many they were still the waiting room for hell.
Tracing the social history of gambling in paintings by Bosch, Caravaggio, de La Tour, Salvator Rosa, Murillo, Hogarth, and others.
For once the name is accurate: it originated in the Prussian Empire around 1704, and by 1730 had established itself as a standard if not entirely reliable pigment. Watteau, Canaletto, Hogarth, Blake, Monet, and van Gogh all used it.
It’s easy to confuse anatomising, an autopsy, and surgery. Here’s a guide to their different readings, with some of the finest example paintings.
It’s not a colour at all, say some, while the Impressionists wanted to banish it from the palette. But throughout the history of painting, the blackest black has remained vital.
Take some blue glass, grind it, and turn it into paint: Smalt is one of the strangest of pigments. It extensively used until replaced by Prussian Blue in the early 1700s, and is making a comeback.
Used since Roman times, it was common in the dress of saints. Highly toxic, it was progressively replaced by cadmium red in the late 19th century.
The role and work of the family physician was painted not infrequently in the late nineteenth century. Starting with a Rembrandt, here are some examples.
In his later years, he painted some unusual religious works, including an episode from the life of St Thomas of Villaneuva, and the heavenly and earthly trinities.