The hard road to realism: development and propagation of knowledge, how to apply it in paintings, and its benefit on visual art.
From Turner, through Calame, John Ferguson Weir, and the last paintings of Gustave Courbet in exile, to Ferdinand Hodler.
It has been claimed that Impressionism relied on oil paint being sold in tubes. In fact that was but a part of a change from craft to technology in the artist’s studio.
Paintings of iron and steel production, printing, lead mining, machining a cog wheel, spinning, and developing a photograph.
More leaf-peeping, from Tina Blau and Monet’s poplars on the River Epte, to Paul Nash’s eerie Wittenham Clumps under the moon’s last phase.
Come leaf-peeping with painters from Samuel Palmer in the Weald of Kent, to Julian Alden Weir’s autumn rain.
These became popular during the 18th century, revealing models and those painting them, assistants, and many others. They also became complex allegories.
A celebration for Independence Day, the fourth of July, with a selection of wonderful American landscape paintings.
Barely known in Europe, he studied in France for 5 years, then from 1888 was a major landscape painter in the US, one of The Ten.
In the late 19th century painters turned attention to depicting rainy conditions, with Caillebotte’s closely observed views, and effects on colour.