Mud as painted in the Danish countryside, and in Norway. But the last word goes to war: both in the Franco-Prussian and First World Wars.
Paris was under siege from September 1870 to the end of January 1871. Painters commanded its defenders, and showed its distress.
In the late 19th century, painting was centred on Paris. But in 1870-71, the city was all but destroyed after a long siege, in the Franco-Prussian War. The story told in paintings.