Paintings of iron and steel production, printing, lead mining, machining a cog wheel, spinning, and developing a photograph.
In the 1870s, Manet and Monet introduced steam trains to the world of art. At the Salon, they were met with ridicule, but became an important theme in Impressionism.
At the start of the 19th century, industrial power came from wind and water. Within forty years, steam power was taking over. How quickly did Turner respond to this revolution?
Mud was a common problem in the streets of cities, and on all the roads, tracks and paths of the country. Why isn’t it seen more in paintings before 1850?
Unlike Impressionism, which spread relatively slowly, Naturalism was prominent in the Salon, so spread across Europe and North America like wildfire.
Decidedly Post-Impressionist, his loose style and rough facture did not impress the critics at first. Painting a mixture of landscapes and scenes from the centre of Berlin, he was still looking for the right formula.
In the late 19th century, painting was centred on Paris. But in 1870-71, the city was all but destroyed after a long siege, in the Franco-Prussian War. The story told in paintings.
With the Industrial Revolution, painters started to depict the furnaces and factories which grew rapidly across Europe and North America. This selection runs to 1879.
Sorolla’s paintings of the seaside are distinctive and some of the greatest essays on light ever completed. He is not just a painter’s painter, but deserves recognition as a true modern Master.