Innovation moved to the countryside around Rome, with Joseph Vernet, and Valenciennes, who prescribed skying in his textbook on landscape painting.
From Dürer in about 1500, through van Ruisdael, Hobbema, Vernet, Girtin, to Constable watermills were popular in landscape art.
A relatively common motif, it started with the peculiar association of death and the erotic, then changed in the late 19th century.
From 1643 (Claude Lorrain), through Claude-Joseph Vernet and Turner to JC Dahl two centuries later.
Painters paid little attention to the form of near-breaking regular waves until the mid-1700s. Japanese art later changed Western painting, with a single print by Hokusai.
Nine of his brilliant oil sketches made in front of the motif in the Roman Campagna between 1782-85, which helped change the history of art.
Almost a century after its publication, Pissarro still recommended Valenciennes’ textbook on landscape painting. Here’s why.
Modern landscape painting, since before the Impressionists, relies on oil sketches made in front of the motif. Was it Vernet who advised Valenciennes to adopt this practice?
An odd story about the leader of the Ukrainian Cossacks and his youthful indiscretion becomes a poem by Byron, and finally burlesque titillation.
Romance, horror, a surprise ending, and a satisfying moral: paintings by Ary Scheffer, William Blake, Gustave Moreau and others.