Horizon, planes of foreground, middle distance and background, repoussoir and framing, rhythm, reflections and panoramas – examples of compositional techniques.
At the start of the 19th century, industrial power came from wind and water. Within forty years, steam power was taking over. How quickly did Turner respond to this revolution?
The story of landscape paintings which are dominated by the sky, from the Dutch Golden Age to Surrealism.
Early landscapes constrained the sky to a backdrop. With Rubens and the Golden Age landscape painters it became the subject in its own right.
From Dürer in about 1500, through van Ruisdael, Hobbema, Vernet, Girtin, to Constable watermills were popular in landscape art.
Paintings of windmills from Hieronymus Bosch, Rembrandt, Jacob van Ruisdael, Thomas Girtin, and others.
Compositional techniques usually involving foreground trees which increase the depth of a picture. Explained and illustrated.
He came to specialise in views of Lake Lucerne, but also painted some superb views of trees, and some chalets above Turner’s favourite Rigi.
One of Hodler’s early influences, Calame was very successful in painting “Swiss horrors” showing the Alps, storms, and raging torrents. They’re still awe-inspiring works.
Many coasts are flat – a challenge to painters from the Netherlands and Belgium in particular. Here masters from the Golden Age, the Hague School, and others take on this challenge.