Its peak with Bonington, Friedrich, Corot and others. Decline in Impressionism to deliberate omission in ‘primitives’ such as Cézanne and Astrup.
A selection of sky-rich oil sketches made in the Roman Campagna during the first half of the 19th century.
The figure appears in later landscapes, including one by Martín Rico, and a pastel by Millet, before being radically revised by Ferdinand Hodler.
Good for watercolour and pastels alone? Paper and cardboard have also been used extensively for oil sketches, and more.
Between 1774-79 he painted views of the mountains, glaciers and waterfalls of the Alps. And he even made oil sketches in front of the motif.
Leading Spanish landscape painter of the late 19th century, he went to France to train in the 1860s, where he painted with Calame and Pissarro.
He came to specialise in views of Lake Lucerne, but also painted some superb views of trees, and some chalets above Turner’s favourite Rigi.
One of Hodler’s early influences, Calame was very successful in painting “Swiss horrors” showing the Alps, storms, and raging torrents. They’re still awe-inspiring works.
At the start, he was a traditional realist.