From 1875 on, paintings of surgical procedures, heroes of medical and surgical advances, and the new clinical look of hospitals.
The painting’s reception, and how it changed 19th century painting, with Courbet, Lhermitte, Naturalists, and Tom Lea III.
From physicists to photographers developing their plates, Naturalist painters recorded the science and technology of their time.
For painters, hospital medicine was spectacle, and its doctors actors on a stage. As time progressed, artists and doctors looked more closely at the patient.