A selection of sky-rich oil sketches made in the Roman Campagna during the first half of the 19th century.
Paintings by Bonington, Jongkind, Monet, Vincent van Gogh, and Piet Mondrian show the latter years of windmills in northern Europe.
Friedrich, Turner, Palmer and Bonnard are among the artists shown, with surprises by courtesy of Cézanne.
Compositional techniques usually involving foreground trees which increase the depth of a picture. Explained and illustrated.
From Richard Parkes Bonington, through AW Hunt, John Brett, Edward Poynter, Delacroix, Rosa Bonheur, Daumier, Gustave Moreau, and Winslow Homer.
Many coasts are flat – a challenge to painters from the Netherlands and Belgium in particular. Here masters from the Golden Age, the Hague School, and others take on this challenge.
More paintings of fishing boats and fish markets on the coast, by Turner, Bonington, Monet, Zorn, Sorolla, Signac, and Paul Nash.
Are they part of a narrative, or staffage? Do they provide scale, or enhance the effect? Are the figures part of the landscape, or even the landscape itself?
Where land, sea, and sky meet. Sought-after and hugely popular in fine weather, the forces of nature are most obvious in storms. The cradle of Impressionism and more modern painting.
What are accessories or ‘staffage’, what narrative, and what intrinsic to the reading and style of a landscape?