In the last quarter of the 19th century, steam trains and ships moved artists around, playing an important role in introducing masters to the south of France.
In the 1870s, Manet and Monet introduced steam trains to the world of art. At the Salon, they were met with ridicule, but became an important theme in Impressionism.
At the start of the 19th century, industrial power came from wind and water. Within forty years, steam power was taking over. How quickly did Turner respond to this revolution?
Until about 1800, Western landscape painting sought to reveal rather than to hide. It was JMW Turner and Caspar David Friedrich who popularised the effect of fog.
Although often the preserve of specialists who concentrated on nocturnes, coasts are ideal locations for moonlit views. Caspar David Friedrich, JC Dahl, and more.
His romantic views of the North Cape of Norway and the Northern Lights were for many their first glimpse of the uttermost north.
Lighthouses in the paintings of JMW Turner, Constable, Monet, Signac, Peder Balke, and others, from England to Turkey.